Hoysala: Mallikarjuna Temple, Hirenallur, Chikmagalur

  While zipping through country roads to reach Amrithapura, which is home to one of the most beautiful Hoysala temple, we stumbled upon a milestone having a familiar name of Hirenallur. On checking our travel diary, we realized this place too housed a Hoysala temple dedicated to Lord Mallikarjuna. As we had more than one option now, we were in a dilemma and as time was ticking, we had to decide quickly.  We made a quick enquiry about the temple and decided to proceed as we heard it was a ‘not to miss’ temple. Not wasting much time, we headed towards this temple and in about ten minutes time reached this magnificent temple.
Hoysala Mallikarjuna Temple Hirenallur Tarikere Chikmagalur
Mallikarjuna Temple 
8th Century Ganga inscription 
   Hirenallur is a small village of Kadur Taluka of Chikmagalur district. The Mallikarjuna temple situated here is a very beautiful Hoysala temple lesser known to the world. There is very little information about this temple in the Internet and print media. The temple is believed to have been built initially by the Gangas during the 8th century according to an inscription recently found here. Later the Hoysala king Ballala II renovated this temple and must have added the two cells to the main cell during the end of 12th century.
Very Beautifully Decorated Shiva Linga 
Heavily Decked Central Ceiling 
Tandaveshwara on Central Ceiling 
Central Ceiling Hoysala
Complicated Craving on the Ceiling 

Lord Vishnu Ananthasayana
Lord Ananthasayana 
Lord Shiva and Parvathi
Uma Maheshwara 
   The temple is a trikuta with Shiva Linga, Keshava and Surya Deva adorning the cells. The central ceiling is a masterpiece with complicated carvings on it and overshadows the beauty of this temple. There are sculptures of Ganapathi and Sapthamatrikas in the sabhamandapa of the temple as usual. The three Shikaras of this temple are heavily decked with images of the various gods and goddesses on them. This temple has been renovated by a few keen locals with the help of Sri Dharmasthala Trust under the guidance of Dr.Veerendra Hedge.
Lord Ugra Narashima 
Shikara and Outer Wall 
Carvings on the Shikara 
    There is a big and beautiful garden around the temple.  Another small temple adjacent to this temple is dedicated to Mailara Linga, housing two beautiful idols of Mailaras. On our way back, another small beautiful temple amidst a farm caught our eye.  This one too was dedicated to Lord Shiva in the form of a Linga. 
Mailara Linga 
Shiva Temple in the Farm 

Temples of Anjaneri, Nashik, Maharashtra

Pancha Digambar Temple Complex, Anjaneri
Pancha Digambar Temple Complex, Anjaneri

I was all set to descend the hill of Anjaneri after resting for a while at the Anjani Mata temple.  The experience uphill was exhilarating and I was fully charged up. However during my descent a group of temples situated a little distance away from the village of Anjaneri caught my attention. Hence, I decided to explore these temples of Anjaneri on reaching the base, completely forgetting about the caves that I wished to explore around the lakes. There are a few cave temples and an ashram besides a lake on the rear side of the first temple. As I continued my descent and reached the trek base, I immediately ordered a plate of special Maggi noodles at a hotel owned by an elderly person. I was extremely hungry and gulped down 2 full plates of noodles. My legs were tired and I started to have second thoughts about exploring the temple complexes near the village by foot. The temple complex was located at a distance of at least 2 km from the trek base. In the meanwhile, a bunch of boys who returned to their vehicle after completing the trek offered to drop me off till the cross-road and I happily welcomed their offer.
Hot Maggi
 After thanking them, I walked across the village of Anjaneri where I could sight the ruins of many temples spread here and there. I reached a spot where I found 3 Hero stones / Sati stones. Here on, I visited the first temple complex which was in ruins. It housed a big temple of Lord Vishnu along with another smaller temple dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi.  The temples remain mostly damaged, with some restoration work being undertaken currently by the ASI. The grandeur of this temple can be felt even in its ruins. It is disheartening to witness the state of this temple today. The main temple is built as per the ‘saptharatha plan’ and houses a damaged yet beautiful panchabhuma bhumija shikhara’, which can be classified under the ‘Hemadpanti/Hemadpanthi Style of Architecture’. Hemadpant was a celebrated physician of the Dwaparayuga, who cured Vibhishana, the brother of Ravana, King of Lanka.  In return, he begged the services of some giant architects with whose help he built numerous temples and step wells in western India, and these styles were collectively classified as ‘Hemadpanti Style of Architecture’. Historically, Hemadri or Hemadpant was a minister of the 9th Devagiri Yadava King Ramachandra (1271 -1308 CE), who was also a great writer and went on to build numerous temples in this region in Hemadpanthi Style of Architecture. There are carvings of Lord Vishnu’s incarnations on the outer walls of this temple. The door frame of the garbhagriha is of Chausakha with beautiful carvings of Trimurti (Lords Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara) along with Lord Ganesha and Goddess Lakshmi on the lintel. The garbhagriha houses a damaged murti of Lord Vishnu on a Garuda peetha. The Lakshmi temple however is much worse than the main temple and devoid of any murti.
Goddess Lakshmi Devi Temple
Lord Vishnu Mandir
Chausakha Door Frame
Lord Brahma, Vishnu & Shiva Carved on the Lintel
Rubble of Lord Vishnu Temple
Right opposite to this temple is a temple dedicated to the Jaina Tirthankara Rishabhanatha (Adinatha) which is in complete ruins.  What a sad and disturbing sight it was! The temple parts were seen spread across the area inside the fence built by the ASI, reflecting the sheer carelessness in maintaining and preserving our heritage. The murti of Lord Rishabhanatha is kept under the open sky without any shelter. From here, I moved on to the next and the biggest temple complex called as the Pancha Digambar Temple. The main temple here has been converted, currently being dedicated to Lord Shiva. This conversion may have happened in the later centuries, as a part of an effort in its restoration. Thus the main temple here is in a better shape, although not good. The ASI however is continuously and constantly working towards the temple’s repair. There are 4 small temples in this complex apart from the main temple and an open air ASI Museum, where all the artifacts found in this area are preserved. The last temple here was a small yet beautiful Jaina temple situated about a few meters away from this temple complex. This temple houses a murti of Jaina Tirthankara. All the temples here were built during the reign of the Devagiri Yadavas between 11th and 13th centuries. Thus ending my quest for this place, only ask was to walk to the main road and board a bus back to Nashik!
Jaina Tirthankara Rishabhanatha
Main Temple of Pancha Digambar Temple Complex
Inscribed Stone
Restoration Work in Progress
Jain Temple

1. Maharashtra district Gazetteer - Nashik

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ಡಂಬಳದ ಗುಡಿಗಳು

ಡಂಬಳ, ಗದಗ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆಯ ಮುಂಡರಗಿ ತಾಲೂಕಿನ ಒಂದು ಪುಟ್ಟ ಗ್ರಾಮ. ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ದೊಡ್ಡ ಬಸಪ್ಪ ಗುಡಿಯು ಕನ್ನಡ ನಾಡಿನ ಹೆಮ್ಮಯ ಪ್ರತೀಕವೆಂದರೆ ತಪ್ಪಲ್ಲ. ಕಲ್ಯಾಣದ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು ನಿರ್ಮಿಸಿದ ಪ್ರಮುಖ ದೇವಾಲಯಗಲ್ಲಿ ಡಂಬಳದ ದೊಡ್ಡಬಸಪ್ಪನ ಗುಡಿಯೂ ಒಂದು. ಡಂಬಳದಲ್ಲಿ ಸುಮಾರು ಗುಡಿಗಳಿವೆ. ಅದರಲ್ಲಿ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರನ ಗುಡಿ, ಜಪದ ಬಾವಿ, ಕಲ್ಲೇಶ್ವರನ ಗುಡಿ ಪ್ರಮುಖವಾದುದು. ಡಂಬಳದ ಪ್ರಾಚೀನ ಕೋಟೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸುಮಾರು ಐತಿಹಾಸಿಕ ಕುರುಹುಗಳು ಸಿಗುತ್ತದೆ.  ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ಗಣೇಶನ ಗುಡಿಯು ಇದೆ. ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಜೈನರ ಬಸದಿ ಹಾಗೂ ಬೌದ್ಧ ವಿಹಾರಗಳು ಇದ್ದವು ಎಂಬುವುದಕ್ಕೂ ಬಹಳಷ್ಟು ಕುರುಹುಗಳು ದೊರೆಯುತ್ತದೆ. ಆದರೆ ಇವತ್ತಿಗೆ ಇವು ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣವಾಗಿ ನಶಿಸಿ ಹೋಗಿದೆ. ಇದು ಆ ಕಾಲಕ್ಕೆ ಒಂದು ಸರ್ವ ಧರ್ಮ ಕ್ಷೇತ್ರವಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಹಾಗು ಆಧುನಿಕ ಕಾಲದಲ್ಲೂ ಅನೇಕ ಧಾರ್ಮಿಕ ಕಾರ್ಯಗಳಿಗೆ ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧವಾಗಿದೆ. ಶಾಸನಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಡಂಬಳವು ಧರ್ಮವೊಲ ಹಾಗೂ  ಧರ್ಮಾಪುರವೆಂದು ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿದೆ.
ದೊಡ್ಡ ಬಸಪ್ಪನ ಗುಡಿ, ಡಂಬಳ
 ದೊಡ್ಡ ಬಸಪ್ಪನ ಗುಡಿಯು ತನ್ನ ಮೂಲ ಸೌಂದರ್ಯವನ್ನು ಉಳಿಸಿಕೊಂಡಿದೆ. ಅಡಿಯಿಂದ ಮುಡಿಯವರಿಗೆ ನಕ್ಷತ್ರಾಕಾರದ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುವ ಈ ದೇವಾಲಯ ಭಾರತದ ವಾಸ್ತುಶಿಲ್ಪ ಅಧ್ಯಯನಕ್ಕೆ ವಿಶೇಷ ಉದಾಹರಣೆ. ಹೆನ್ರಿ ಕೋಸೆನ್ಸ್ರವರು ಈ ದೇವಾಲಯದ ನಿರ್ಮಾಣವು ಕಲ್ಯಾಣ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರ ವಾಸ್ತುಶಿಲ್ಪಕ್ಕೆ ಹಿಡಿದ ಕನ್ನಡಿ ಎಂದು ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯ ಪಟ್ಟಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಈ ದೇವಾಲಯವು ಗರ್ಭಗೃಹ, ಅಂತರಾಳ, ನವರಂಗ, ಮುಖಮಂಟಪ ಹಾಗೂ ನಂದಿಮಂಟಪಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ. ದೇವಾಲಯದ ಎಲ್ಲ ಭಾಗಗಳು ವಿಶಾಲವಾಗಿದ್ದು ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರ ಶೈಲಿಯ ಅಚ್ಚು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ. ದೇವಾಲಯದ ಆವರಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ಚಿಕ್ಕ ಬಾವಿ ಇದೆ. ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ಒಂದು ಶಾಸನದ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಈ ದೇವಾಲಯವನ್ನು ಸ್ವಯಂಭು ಈಶ್ವರನ ಗುಡಿಯೆಂದು ಕರೆಯುತಿದ್ದರು. ದೇವಾಲಯದ ನಂದಿಮಂಟಪದಲ್ಲಿ ಇರುವ ದೊಡ್ಡ ನಂದಿಯ ಮೂರ್ತಿಯಿಂದಾಗಿಯೇ ಈಗ ಈ ದೇವಾಲಯವನ್ನು ದೂಡ ಬಸಪ್ಪನ ಗುಡಿ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಈ ದೇವಾಲಯದ ಕಾಲ ಸುಮಾರು ೧೧ನೇಯ ಶತಮಾನ ಹಾಗು ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ರಾಜಾ ವಿಕ್ರಮಾದಿತ್ಯ VI ರ ರಾಣಿಯಾದ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮೀದೇವಿಯ ಆಳ್ವಿಕ ಸಮಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಟ್ಟಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿತ್ತು. 
ನಕ್ಷತ್ರಾಕಾರದ ಶಿಖರ
ದೊಡ್ಡ ಬಸ್ಸಪ್ಪ ಹಾಗೂ ಚಿಕ್ಕ ಬಸ್ಸಪ್ಪನ ಮೂರ್ತಿಗಳು
ಬಾಗಿಲವಾಡದ ಲಲಾಟದಲ್ಲಿ ಗಜಲಕ್ಷ್ಮೀ ದೇವಿಯ ಉಬ್ಬುಶಿಲ್ಪ
ಬಾಗಿಲವಾಡದ ಏಳು ಪಟ್ಟಿಕೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ  ದ್ವಾರಪಾಲಕರ ಕೆತ್ತನೆಗಳು
ಸ್ವಯಂಭು ಈಶ್ವರನ ಲಿಂಗ
ನೃತ್ಯಭಂಗಿಯಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಭಕ್ತರ  ಉಬ್ಬುಶಿಲ್ಪ
ಚಿಕ್ಕ ಬಾವಿ
ದೊಡ್ಡ ಬಸಪ್ಪನಗುಡಿಯ ಹಿಂಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಸುಮಾರು ೧೦೦ ಮೀಟರ್ ದೂರದಲ್ಲಿ ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಸುಂದರ ದೇವಾಲಯವಿದೆ. ಈ ದೇವಾಲಯವನ್ನು ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರಗುಡಿ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಹಿಂದೆ ಈ ಗುಡಿಯನು ಮೈಲಬೇಶ್ವರನ ಗುಡಿ ಎಂದು ಶಾಸನದಲ್ಲಿ ಕರೆಯಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿದೆ. ಈ ಗುಡಿಯನ್ನು ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ದೊರೆ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರ I ರವರ ರಾಣಿಯಾದ ಮೈಲಾದೇವಿಯ ನೆನಪಿಗೆ ಕಟ್ಟಿದ್ದರು ಹಾಗೂ ಮುಂದಿನ ದಿನಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರನ ಗುಡಿ ಎಂದು ಬದಲಾಯಿತು. ಈ ಗುಡಿಯ ಗರ್ಭಗೃಹ ಚೌಕಾಕಾರದ ರೂಪದಲ್ಲಿದ್ದು ಅಂತರಾಳ, ತೆರೆದ ಸಭಾಮಂಟಪ ಹಾಗೂ ಮುಖಮಂಟಪವನ್ನು  ಹೊಂದಿದೆ. ಇವೆರಡು ಗುಡಿಗಳು ಊರಿನ ಹೊರಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿದ್ದು ತಕ್ಕ ಮಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ಸುಸ್ಥಿತಿಯಲ್ಲಿದೆ. ಹಳೇಕೋಟೆಯ ಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ವಿಶಾಲವಾದ ಕೆರೆಯಿದೆ, ಈ ಕೆರೆಯನ್ನು ಶಾಸನದಲ್ಲಿ ಗೋಣಸಮುದ್ರ ಎಂದು ಕರೆದಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಈ ಕೆರೆಯ ಏರಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಆ ಕಾಲದ ತೂಬನ್ನು ಈಗಲೂ ಕಾಣಬಹುದು. ಸುತ್ತಲೂ ಕಲ್ಲಿನ ಗೋಡೆಯ ಕೋಟೆಯ ಅವಶೇಷಗಳನ್ನೂ ಕಾಣಬಹುದು.
ಶ್ರೀ ಸೋಮೇಶ್ವರ ಗುಡಿ
ಗೋಣಸಮುದ್ರ ಕೆರೆ 
ಡಂಬಳದ ಕೋಟೆ
ಅಲ್ಲಿಂದ ಸ್ವಲ್ಪ ದೂರದಲ್ಲಿ ಮರುನಿರ್ಮಾಣವಾದ ಕಲ್ಲೇಶ್ವರನ ಗುಡಿ ಇದೆ, ದೇವಾಲಯದ ಉಳಿದ ಭಾಗಗಳನ್ನು ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸಿ ಪುನರ್ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಟೆ ಮಾಡಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಈ ಗುಡಿ ಗರ್ಭಗೃಹ, ಅಂತರಾಳ ಹಾಗೂ ನವರಂಗವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ. ಈ ಗುಡಿಯ ಬಳಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಒಂದು ಸುಂದರವಾದ ಬಾವಿ ಇದೆ, ಈ ಬಾವಿಯನ್ನು ಜಪದ ಬಾವಿಯೆಂದು ಕರಿಯುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಸ್ವಲ್ಪ ವರ್ಷಗಳ ಹಿಂದೆ ಇದನ್ನು ಭೂಶೋಧನೆ ಮಾಡಿದರು. ಈ ಬಾವಿಯ ಸುತ್ತು ೧೫ ಚಿಕ್ಕ ಗುಡಿಗಳಲ್ಲಿ  ೧೨ನೇ ಶತಮಾನದಲ್ಲಿ ಋಷಿಗಳು ಕೂತು ಜಪ ಮಾಡುತ್ತಿದ್ದರು ಎಂಬ ಪ್ರತೀತಿಯಿದೆ. ಈ ಬಾವಿಯ ನೋಟವು ಅತೀ ಸುಂದರ ಹಾಗೂ ತುಂಬ ಪ್ರಶಾಂತವಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಒಟ್ಟಾರೆ ಡಂಬಳವು ನಮ್ಮ ನಾಡಿನ ಹಾಗೂ ಕಲ್ಯಾಣ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರ ಕಲಾಕೃತಿಗೆ ಒಂದು ಅದ್ಭುತ ಉದಾಹರಣೆಯಾಗಿ ನಿಲ್ಲುತ್ತದೆ.
ಶ್ರೀ ಕಲ್ಲೇಶ್ವರ ಗುಡಿ
ಜಪದ ಬಾವಿ
ಲೇಖನದ ಸಂಪಾದನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ನಮಗೆ ಸಹಾಯ ಮಾಡಿದ ಶ್ರೀ ರಂಜಿತ್ ಅಡಿಗ ರವರಿಗೆ ಹೃತ್ಪೂರ್ವಕ ಧನ್ಯವಾದಗಳು. 

ಉಲೇಖನ ಪಟ್ಟಿ:
೧.  ಧಾರವಾಡ ಜಿಲ್ಲಾ ಗ್ಯಾಸೆಟಿಯರ್
೨.  ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ದೇವಾಲಯ ಕೋಶ - ಗದಗ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆ

ಸಂಬಂಧಿತ ಲೇಖನಗಳು:
೧. ಶ್ರೀ  ಮುಕ್ತೇಶ್ವರಸ್ವಾಮಿ ದೇವಾಲಯ, ಚೌಡಯ್ಯದಾನಪುರ
೨. ಕರ್ನಾಟಕದ ದೇವಾಲಯಗಳು  
೩. ಕರ್ನಾಟಕದ ಕೋಟೆಗಳು

Anjaneri Fort Trek, Nashik, Maharasthra

'Anjaneri' is believed to be the birth place of Lord Hanuman, similar to the hill of Anjanadri near Anegundi. However, it is very difficult to ascertain the original birth place of the Lord among these two. Anjaneri is believed to be the birth place of Goddess Anjani Matha, the mother of  Lord Hanuman/Anjaneya.  There is an ancient temple at Anjaneri dedicated to the goddess. It is unique as it is believed that there is no other temple built for this goddess. We can ascertain that this place has some association with Lord Hanuman. However,  Lord Hanuman is believed to have spent most of his time at a place named Kishkinda/Kishkinde. Kishkinda of Ramayana has been identified as Anegundi and its surrounding areas in the state of Karnataka. Although there are a few other places claiming as the birth place of Lord Hanuman, Anjanadri Betta of Kishkinda is the closest in relation as per the Ramayana. Nashik too has a deep connection with Lord Rama. It is at this place Lord Rama's brother Lakshmana cut the nose of Shurpanakha (Ravana's sister) leading to the kidnapping of Sita Matha. It would be wonderful to trace the route taken by Lord Rama from Ayodhya to Sri Lanka during in his exile.
Anjaneri Hill from the Bus Stop
Good Morning
Anjaneri Landscape
 My initial plan was to trek the fort at Harihar which a much popular trekking destination and therefore booked a cab for the same through an app. However, the driver had cancelled the booking due to some reason for which no notification was sent to me. I woke up in morning only to find out that the cab booking was canceled and the next cab pick-up would easily take at least 45 mins. Thus I dropped the plan of trekking Harihar fort and instead decided to go to Trimbak, a popular pilgrimage center and one among the 12 Jyotirlingas. Meanwhile, I stumbled upon the fort of Anjaneri which is located en-route to Trimbak from Nashik and is a popular trekking destination. It is worthwhile to mention that the bus connectivity between Nashik and Trimbak is commendable and available throughout the day and night. I boarded the 5 am bus in the morning and after a journey of about 45 mins, I got down at the Anjaneri cross bus-stop from where the trek base was about good 2km. I had to cover this distance by foot since no vehicle was available in the early morning hours.
Sun Over Anjaneri
Anjaneri Lake
Contrasting Colors of Life
There are well laid roads up to the trek base. However, I took the shorter route by foot used by the locals  and reached the trek base. What lovely sight it was! On one side was a big lake with blue waters and other encompassed a mesmerizing sunrise. Finally after a good 30 min walk I reached the trek base where there were a few shops and none were open except one that was just getting opened. An elderly person who ran this shop told me to wait for 5 minutes while he prepared some hot tea for me. Here, there were few boards giving details about the ecological importance of Anjaneri apart from being protected as a vulture sanctuary. I filled up my water bottle while the hot tea was getting ready. Though I generally do not prefer drinking tea, the tea here was probably the best that I have ever had. Steps are laid from here till the plateau and in between at a few places, railings have installed for support. Many locals ascend the hill on a regular basis to offer prayers and  perform for daily pujas to Goddess Anjani Matha.
Jaina Cave Temple
Lord Parshvanatha Tirthankara
Goddess Anjani Matha Temple
Lake on the Anjaneri Hill
More Trek Options Near Nashik
Navara Navri Fort
 The first temple that I came across here was a small Jaina cave temple dedicated Lord Parshvanatha. There are 2 murtis of the Lord caved in 2 separate chambers of the cave. A short climb from here leads to a plateau region from where one has to walk for about 10 minutes to reach the temple dedicated to Anjani Matha. After offering prayers to the goddess, it was time for another cup of hot tea. A further ascent hereon leads us to the peak of Anjaneri hills. Though no fortification exist here today, once a grand fort was erected which was destroyed by the British. At the beginning of the next series of steps is a small water pond in contrast to the big lake seen below. There are a few cave temples here which I wanted to explore while descending. I continued my climb and reached the peak in about 20 minutes. The views from here were  breathtaking and no words can describe it enough. There is a small temple at the peak which is believed to be the birth place of Lord Hanuman.
Goddess Anjani Matha
Birth Place of Lord Hanuman
Hanuman Gupha
Tales of Two Lakes

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